Datorspelsberoende

Expressen är ju inte känd som någon kvalitetstidning. Dessutom har de på ledarsidan två ledarskribenter som ständigt envisas med att skriva tyckade utifrån en ovetenskaplig och medveten felaktig utgångspunkt i syfte att hävda deras liberala åsikter. Jag har svårt att förstå varför en tidning tillåter att skämma ut sig gång på gång. Nu senast är det Johanna Nylander som har skrivit ett inlägg om datorspelsberoende.

Hon påstår att det inte finns. Hon påstår att de som hävdar att ett psykologiskt beroende av dataspel kan skapas och orsaka mänskligt lidande inte har vetenskapligt stöd. Det är tvärtom. Johanna Nylanders åsikter har inte stöd i vetenskap. Tvärtom finns det flera vetenskapliga studier som stöder datorspelande kan leda till beroende. Några exempel från en enkel databassökning (som dessutom är utfärd på enkelt sätt med orden ”Online games addiction”, en mer korrekt forskningsöversikt sker med fler sökord, flerdatabaser etc) över forskning är:

1. Artikeln ”Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents” i Media Psychology. Vol 12(1), Jan 2009 med sammanfattningen:

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems). The dimensional structure of the scale was investigated in two independent samples of adolescent gamers (N = 352 and N = 369). In both samples, a second-order factor model described our data best. The 21-item scale, as well as a shortened 7-item version, showed high reliabilities. Furthermore, both versions showed good concurrent validity across samples, as indicated by the consistent correlations with usage, loneliness, life satisfaction, social competence, and aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

2. Artikeln ”The role of metacognitions in problematic internet use” i Computers in Human Behavior. Vol 24(5), Sep 2008, pp. 2325-2335 med sammanfattningen:
Research has suggested that negative emotions are associated with problematic Internet use. This study investigated the role of metacognitions as a mediator of the relationship between negative emotions and problematic Internet use. A sample of 97 university students completed the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Boredom Proneness Scale, Metacognitions Questionnaire 30, and Internet Addiction Test. All dimensions of metacognition were found to be positively and significantly correlated with problematic Internet use. Positive and significant correlations were also observed between problematic Internet use and negative emotions (anxiety, depression and boredom). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model in which negative emotions predicted metacognitions which in turn predicted problematic Internet use. The results supported the hypothesis that the relationship between negative emotions and problematic Internet use is fully mediated by metacognitions, suggesting that metacognitive theory may be relevant to understanding problematic Internet use. The implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

3. Artikeln The Motivations Of Adolescents Who Are Addicted To Online Games: A Cognitive Perspective i Adolescence, vol. 42, no. 165, pp. 179-197, Spring 2007 med sammanfattningen:
This research explored, from the perspective of cognitive theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. Study 1 focused on the differential motivations between the addicts and nonaddicts. The findings revealed that the addicts exhibited higher intrinsic than extrinsic motivation, whereas the nonaddicts showed an opposite relationship. The intrinsic motivation of the addicts was also higher than the nonaddicts. The results imply that intrinsic motivation plays a crucial role in gaming addiction. Study 2 was conducted to examine whether four factors that moderate the detrimental effect of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation would function as predicted. Results indicated that extrinsic rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation when they were high expectancy, high relevance, tangible, and noncontingent. Thus, players’ intrinsic motivation would be higher when extrinsic rewards were low expectancy, low relevance, intangible, and contingent. This article provides insights into the differential motivations of the addicted players and how to employ intrinsic motivators to affect their intrinsic motivation. Adapted from the source document.

4. Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing i Computers in Human Behavior med sammanfattningen:
This study considered whether the distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction, previously drawn with respect to computing activities in general, applies in the specific area of Massively Multiplayer Online Game playing. Questionnaire items were administered over the Internet to 442 game players. Factor-analysis of the data supported the previous findings for computing in general. An addiction factor loaded on items tapping previously identified core criteria (conflict, withdrawal symptoms, relapse and reinstatement and behavioral salience) and a (non-pathological) engagement factor loaded on items tapping previously identified peripheral criteria (cognitive salience, tolerance and euphoria). Analysis of response frequencies supported the existence of a developmental process whereby peripheral criteria are met before core criteria. Players who might be considered addicted using a monothetic classification system involving only the core criteria were shown to spend a significantly greater amount of time playing per week than those endorsing only the peripheral criteria. It is concluded that the study supports the idea that it is inappropriate to use some of the previously used criteria for addiction when researching or diagnosing computer-related addictions. Implications of the present findings for Internet-mediated data collection methodologies are also discussed.

Det finns många fler. Men Expressens ledarsida är inte intresserad av vetenskap eller att basera sitt tyckande på forskning. Det är bara osakligt tyckande som tidningen ägnar sig åt. Det är sorgligt, särskilt för dem som sviks av Expressen, de som är offer för ett beroende som etablissemanget inte vill se som ett problem.

Nylander nöjer sig inte bara med att vara ovetenskaplig. Hon påstår även att Malmö kommuns öppenvård bedrivs i strid med lagstiftningen om journaler/dokumentation. Det är en allvarlig anklagelse, men jag antar att Nylander har bevis för denna anklagelse. I så fall har Malmö kommun en del att förklara varför de bedriver vård utan journalföring.

Sedan är det nog hedersamt att bli kallad beroendealarmist av en liberal, även om hon även har fel i att jag har ekonomiska intressen i att hävda att det underlättar om debatten om missbruk förs utifrån vetenskapliga rön.

Till sist är det symtomatiskt för de egocentrerade liberalerna att föraktet mot missbrukare och kriminella är illa dolt i Nylanders artikel. Det är ju i sin ordning eftersom den människosynen präglar liberalerna i alla frågor.

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